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Google translatation versus manual translation

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background As an EFL student, we are demanded to understand the language that we study about. Part of it that our book’s resource use the language that refer to, in our case it use English. So, it makes some obstacle in understanding the material of that books since our first language is not English. Come to think of it, most of the EFL student make they own way to fulfill the demand using the tool that help them in translating the book. This tool became popular among students nowadays. It helps the student to get through their assignment especially in Writing and Reading Assignment.

It is very simple because they are just copy the material and paste it to the tools and like an “ abracadabra” of Harry Potter, the text changes into our language. It becomes worrisome, because it against the notion about “ Academic Reading” which is based on how we understand and translate into our language. For an Academic, it is pitiful to fully use the tools rather than manual translate which is more accurate and help us to increase our capability in translating from one to the language that referred. Therefore, we are very concern about this phenomenon in the translating field.

Especially this tool that become more popular because some advantages. One of them is the practicality of time and this tool is very easy to use. The impact toward student is quite distinct which makes student became lazy to translate it by themselves. For the extent, it makes their ability in language become decrease especially in translating and reading. Here, we connect the translation and reading because when we are translating a text, we are reading the text automatically. So the effect is very large. Is it really worrisome?

Considering that we are a college student who demanded to be excellent in all field of language. B. Formulation Of The Problems 1. What is translation? 2. What are kinds of translation? 3. What is Google Translate? 4. What is the difference between using Google Translate and doing Manual translation? 5. How do both of them influence the way student translate English into Indonesian? C. Aims Of The Writing 1. To understand the meaning of Translation 2. Be able to distinguish between kinds of Translation 3. To know what is Google Translate and Manual Translate . To understand the phenomenon about translation using Google Translate compare to do manual translate. 5. To understand the influence of both of them toward the students preference toward how to translate. D. Methodology This paper is made by using qualitative approach. The method that is used is descriptive method. We will explain the surface of translation and its phenomenon about Google translate crystal clear and fully understanding. Theoretical data is from some resources such books, article and literature that related to the problem.

The data is processed by using content analysis technique through the exploration of the data and apply it in the context of this paper. CHAPTER II THEORETICAL STUDY A. Definition of Translation Brislings (1976: 1) defines translation as follows: “ translation is the general term referring to the transfer of thoughts and ideas from one language (source) to another (target), whether the language are in written or oral form, whether the language have established orthographies or do not have such standardization, or whether one or both language based on signs, as with signs languages of the deaf”.

In his definition, he gives wide coverage in translation. He includes transferring thought and ideas to sign language of the deaf or uncommon language in translation. By dictionary definition`, translation own or another’s language (the Merriam Webster Dictionary. 1974 in Larson, 1984: 3). This definition covers wide circumstance. It is not only changing from one` language into poem, or one’s feeling into the music, etc. Schulte and Biguenet (1992: 145) call this situation transmutation, that is, interpretation of verbal signs by means of signs of a nonverbal signs systems.

He also included oral and written translation, and the translation from old language into modern language. Following Tonus’s (1997: 27) interpretation of the notion of translation (1) theory of phenomena, (2) the phenomena of study, and (3) the practice or activity of working on the phenomena, the following figure is created to give a clearer picture of the notion to be adopted in this study. Names given and widely used to address translation as the theory about the phenomena of translated are presented. As the phenomena of study, translation can be categorized into three different groups, i. . , translation as language as no language phenomena and translation as language/no language phenomena. Translation as the phenomena alone, following Jacobson (in Tou, 1997: 13), can be categorized into three kinds of translation mentioned as intralingua, Interlingua and inter-semiotic translation. Examine the following figure. Nida and Taber (1969: 12) propose that translating consist of reproducing in the reproducing in the receptor language the closet natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in term of style.

According to them translators should use the closets natural equivalent either in the meaning or the style of the receptor language. In the other words, the result of translation should not sound as translation but without changing the meaning of the source language. A similar definition of translation is mentioned by new mark (1988: 32) who says that translation is the super ordinate term for converting the meaning of any source language utterance to the target language. B. Kinds of Translation According to Larson (1984: 15) Translation is classified into two main types, namely form-based and meaning-based translation.

Form-based translation attempts to follow the form of the source language and is known as literal translation, while meaning-based translation makes every effort to communicate the meaning of SL text in the natural forms of the respecter language. Such translation is called idiomatic translation. An interlinear translation is a completely literal translation. For some purposes, it is desirable to reproduce the linguistic feature of the source text, as in a linguistic study of the language. Although these literal translation may be ery useful for purposes related to study of the SL. They are of little help to speaker of the receptor language who are interested in the meaning of the SL text. A literal translation sounds like nonsense and has little communication value (Larson 1984: 15). The literal translation can be understood if the general grammatical form of the two languages are similar. Except for interlinear translation, a truly literal translation is uncommon. Most translators who tend to translate literally actually make a partially modified literal translation.

They modify the order and grammar to use an acceptable sentence structure in the receptor language. However, the lexical items are translated literally and still the result do not sound natural (Larson, 1984: 16). Larson (1984: 16) says that idiomatic translation use the natural form of the receptor language both in the grammatical constructions and in the grammatical constructions and in the choice of lexical items. A truly idiomatic translation does not sound like a translation.

It sound like it was written originally in the receptor language. Therefore, a good translator will try to translate idiomatically. This is his or her goal. In practice, however, it is hard to consistently translate idiomatically or literally. These translation are often a mixture of literal and idiomatic forms of language. Translation then falls on a continuum from very literal to literal, to modified literal, to near idiomatic, to idiomatic, and my fall, even more on the unduly free as displayed below (Larson, 1984: 17).

Figure 3. Translator’s goal Unduly free translations are considered unacceptable translation for most purpose. Translation are called unduly free according to the following characteristic: 1) if they add extraneous information not in the source text, 2) if they change the meaning of SL text, 3) if they distort the fact of the historical and cultural setting of the SL text. Sometimes unduly free translations are made for the purpose of humor or to bring about a special response from the receptor language speakers (Larson 1986: 17).

However, they are unacceptable as normal translation. Catford (1965: 21) makes categories of translation in terms of extent, levels, and ranks of translation. Based on the extent, he classifies translation into a full translation, on the levels of translation there are total and restricted translation and on the ranks there are ranks bound and unbounded translation. In full translation, the entire text is submitted to the translation process, that is, every part of the source language text is replaced by text material.

By Catford (1965: 21) means any stretch of language, spoken or written, which is under discussion and according to circumstance a text, may be whole library of books, a single volume, a chapter, a paragraph, a sentence, a clause, etc. in partial translation, some part(s) of the SL text are left untranslated. They are simply transferred to the TL text. In a literally translation, it is uncommon for some SL lexical items to be treated in this way. A total translation means replacement of SL, grammar and lexis by equivalent TL grammar and lexis with consequential replacement of SL. honology/graphology by nonequivalent TL phonology/graphology, while a restricted translation means replacement of SL textual material by equivalent TL textual material at only one level, that is translation performed only at the phonological or at the graph logical level, or at only one of two levels of grammar and lexis. Rank-bound translation is translation in which the selection of TL equivalents is deliberately confined to one rank or a few ranks in the hierarchy of grammatical units, usually at word or morpheme rank, which is, setting up and down the rank translation scale is called unbounded translation.

Sometimes, between large units than the sentence. Based on the purposes of translation, Brislin (1976: 3-4) categorize translation into four type, namely: a) Pragmatic translation It refers to the translation of a message with an interest in accuracy of the information that was meant to be conveyed in the source language form and it is not concerned with other aspect of the original language version. The clearest example of pragmatic translation is the translation of the information about repairing a machine.

Example: For printing photographs, illustrations, use of the high resolution paper, glossy photo paper of high glossy photo film is the recommended, these media provide better color reproduction and brighter colors than plain paper. b). Aesthetic-poetic translation This refers to translation in which the translator takes into account the affect, emotion, and feelings of an original agnate version, the aesthetic form used by the original author, as well as any information in the message.

The example of this type are the translation of sonnet, rhyme, heroic couplet, dramatic dialogue, and novel. Example: The rising sun is found not to be the rising sun. It is the world which goes around. The bachelor is found not to be a bachelor. It is the flower that thought he was a liar. The love that shines collides with the lust and desire she fears. And the bachelor flies to the skies to get the dice to show in front of her eyes. But he dies and she dies. If we can’t say good bye eye to eye.

Then we don’t have to cry. But actually I WANT to cry. For you must fly high up in the sky. Leaving me alone here high and dry. There will be no more lullaby. Recited with a tone of shy. c). ethnographic translation The purpose of ethnographic translation is too explicit the cultural context of the source and TL version. Translation have to be sensitive to the way word are used and must know how the words fits into cultures. An example is the use of the word ‘ yes’ versus ‘ yea’ in American. d). linguistic translation

This is concerned with the equivalent meanings of the constituent morphemes of the source language and grammatical form, an example is language in a computer program and machine translation. Machine translation (MT) is a process whereby a computer program analyzes a source text and, in principle, produces a target text without human intervention. In reality, however, machine translation typically does involve human intervention, in the form of pre-editing and post-editing. With proper terminology work, with preparation of the source text for machine translation (pre-editing), and ith reworking of the machine translation by a human translator (post-editing), commercial machine-translation tools can produce useful results, especially if the machine-translation system is integrated with a translation-memory or globalization-management system. Unedited machine translation is publicly available through tools on the Internet such as Google Translate, Babel Fish, Babylon, and StarDict. These produce rough translations that, under favorable circumstances, “ give the gist” of the source text. Also, companies such as Ectaco produce pocket devices that provide machine translations.

Relying exclusively on unedited machine translation, however, ignores the fact that communication in human language is context-embedded and that it takes a person to comprehend the context of the original text with a reasonable degree of probability. It is certainly true that even purely human-generated translations are prone to error; therefore, to ensure that a machine-generated translation will be useful to a human being and that publishable-quality translation is achieved, such translations must be reviewed and edited by a human.

Claude Piron writes that machine translation, at its best, automates the easier part of a translator’s job; the harder and more time-consuming part usually involves doing extensive research to resolve ambiguities in the source text, which the grammatical and lexical exigencies of the target language require to be resolved. Such research is a necessary prelude to the pre-editing necessary in order to provide input for machine-translation software, such that the output will not be meaningless.

Brislin (1976: 3-4) says that basically, based on the kinds of the text of to be translated, there are two types of translation namely factual and literary translation. Factual translation refers to translating to convey information with precision, without involving the emotions or feelings of the translator but only based on the real fact such as translating scientific fields, reports, newspapers, etc. literary translation refers to the translation of art works. In this kind of translation, the translator involves his/her emotion or feeling and it tends to be subjective, for example, the translation of poems, drama, novels, etc.

Brislin (1976: 3-4) says that based on the translator’s method, there are bounded and unbounded translators. Bounded translation is translation in which the translator translates in one rank usually in an interlinear way without changing the form of the original text. It is done to keep original style of the source text. Unbounded translation is the translation in which the translator is free to move from one form to another. It is done since it is only information needed in the translation and there is no importance of the form. C. Definition of Google Translate

Google Translate is a free statistical multilingual machine-translation service provided by Google Inc. to translate written text from one language into another. Before October 2007, for languages other than Arabic, Chinese and Russian, Google used a SYSTRAN based translator which is used by other translation services such as Babel Fish, AOL, and Yahoo. On May 26, 2011, Google announced that the Google Translate API had been deprecated and that it would cease functioning on December 1, 2011, “ due to the substantial economic burden caused by extensive abuse. The shutting down of the API, which is used by a number of websites, has led to criticism of Google and developers questioning the viability of using Google APIs in their products. On June 3, 2011, Google announced that they were canceling its plan to terminate the Translate API due to public pressure. In the same announcement, Google said that it will release a paid version of the Translate API. Features and limitations The service limits the number of paragraphs, or range of technical terms, that will be translated.

It is also possible to enter searches in a source language that are first translated to a destination language allowing you to browse and interpret results from the selected destination language in the source language. For some languages, users are asked for alternate translations such as for technical terms, to be included for future updates to the translation process. Text in a foreign language can be typed, and if “ Detect language” is selected, it will not only detect the language but will translate it into English by default.

The homepage of English Wikipedia translated into Portuguese Google Translate, like other automatic translation tools, has its limitations. While it can help the reader to understand the general content of a foreign language text, it does not always deliver accurate translations. Some languages produce better results than others. Google Translate performs well especially when English is the target language and the source language is one of the languages of the European Union.

Results of analyses were reported in 2010, showing that French to English translation is relatively accurate and 2011 and 2012 showing that Italian to English translation is relatively accurate as well. However, rule-based machine translations perform better if the text to be translated is shorter; this effect is particularly evident in Chinese to English translations. Texts written in the Greek, Devanagari, Cyrillic and Arabic scripts can be transliterated automatically from phonetic equivalents written in the Latin alphabet.

Browser integration A number of Firefox extensions exist for Google services, and likewise for Google Translate, which allow right-click command access to the translation service. An extension for Google’s Chrome browser also exists; in February 2010, Google translate was integrated into the standard Google Chrome browser for automatic webpage translation. Android version Google Translate is available as a free downloadable application for Android OS users. The first version was launched in January 2010. It works simply like the browser version.

Google translation for Android contains two main options: “ SMS translation” and “ History”. An early 2011 version supported Conversation Mode when translating between English and Spanish (in alpha testing). This new interface within Google Translate allows users to communicate fluidly with a nearby person in another language. In October it was expanded to 14 languages. The application supports 53 languages and voice input for 15 languages. It is available for devices running Android 2. 1 and above and can be downloaded by searching for “ Google Translate” in Android Market.

It was first released in January 2010, with an improved version available on January 12, 2011. Latest version: 2. 0. 0 build 42 iOS version Google Translate iOS icon In August 2008, Google launched a Google Translate HTML5 web application for iOS for iPhone and iPod touch users. The official iOS app for Google Translate was released February 8, 2011. It accepts voice input for 15 languages and allows translation of a word or phrase into one of more than 50 languages. Translations can be spoken out loud in 23 different languages.

Translation methodology Google Translate does not apply grammatical rules, since its algorithms are based on statistical analysis rather than traditional rule-based analysis. Indeed, the system’s original creator, Franz Josef Och, has criticized the effectiveness of rule-based algorithms in favor of statistical approaches. It is based on a method called statistical machine translation, and more specifically, on research by Och who won the DARPA contest for speed machine translation in 2003. He is now the head of Google’s machine translation group.

Google does not translate from one language to another (L1 > L2), but often translates first to English and then to the target language (L1 > EN > L2). However, because English, like all human languages, is ambiguous and depends on context, this can cause translation errors. For example, translating vous from French to Russian gives vous > you > ?? OR B?/??. If Google were using an unambiguous, artificial language as the intermediary, it would be vous > you > B?/?? OR tu > thou > ??. Such a suffixing of words disambiguates their different meanings.

Hence, publishing in English, using non ambiguous words, providing context, using expressions such as “ you all” often make a better one-step translation. The following languages do not have a direct Google translation to or from English. These languages are translated through the indicated intermediate language in addition to through English  * Belarusian (be – ru – en – other) * Catalan (ca – es – en – other) * Galician (gl – pt – en – other) * Haitian Creole (ht – fr – en – other) * Macedonian (mk – bg – en – other) * Slovak (sk – cs – en – other) Ukrainian (uk – ru – en – other) Urdu (ur – hi – en – other) Overlooking the grammar of the language can cause mistakes. For example, consider the following sentence: ????? (3rd person: it writes) ??? (dative: to you (all)) ?????? (letter) ????? (family) ????? (genitive: of Daria). Based on the word order, Google translates: You wrote a letter to family Darya. Based on declensions (word functions), it means: [it’s] Daria’s family [that] writes you a letter, exactly the opposite. Google took you for to you, Daria for of Daria as well as to the family for the family.

When translating back to Russian, however, Google says: ????? ????? ????? ??? ??????. That’s correct because Google understood the English word order. Respecting the same word order as in English or publishing in English as above may help. According to Och, a solid base for developing a usable statistical machine translation system for a new pair of languages from scratch, would consist of a bilingual text corpus (or parallel collection) of more than a million words, and two monolingual corpora of each more than a billion words.

Statistical models from these data are then used to translate between those languages. To acquire this huge amount of linguistic data, Google used United Nations documents. The UN typically publishes documents in all six official UN languages, which has produced a very large 6-language corpus. Google representatives have been involved with domestic conferences in Japan where it has solicited bilingual data from researchers. CHAPTER III DISCUSSION As we mentioned before in the first chapter, about how the phenomenon of Google Translate versus Manual Translate.

In this chapter, we are going to discuss it more deeply, and try to understand the phenomenon from our point of you. Google Translate is a free statistical multilingual machine-translation service provided by Google Inc. to translate written text from one language into another. This tool is used widely, whether you are a student, engineer, doctor, or civil. It is very helpful when we are stuck and do not understand the other language. Nevertheless, in the academic field, especially English Student who is no-native, this tool become the most helpful tool yet it give us a bad effect.

How this thing happen?? Come to think. “ Google Translate uses statistical matching to translate rather than a dictionary/grammar rules approach, translated text can often include apparently nonsensical and obvious errors, often swapping common terms for similar but nonequivalent common terms in the other language, as well as inverting sentence meaning…” That is the real reason about why Google Translate became dangerous when we connected it to the student’s ability in translation. English student is demanded to understand the articles, books, and literature that use English.

It becomes obstacle for the student who has a lack in their ability such as mastery of vocabulary. So, the alternative way is using Google Translate. These condition emerges the decrease of ability student in Translation. Student become a procrastinator and don’t want to put an effort in Manual Translate. They did not realize that use Google Translate make their written text become error and lack of grammar and quality. They are being dependent to that tool and cannot doing their Writing or Reading assignment. Furthermore, we find out that this condition is really bad to the student who are going to make a thesis.

What will happen to their thesis?? It is very pitiful that our graduation became less of ability because of this simple thing. We are as an English Student never give a try to doing Manual Translation and increase our natural ability in language acquisition through the Writing and Reading (it is because speaking and listening didn’t affected directly to this phenomenon, so I just mention the two of them). Besides, if we look to the other country, they are very concern in this field because through this two ability, the student also increase their critical thinking and have a good ability in writing.

The notion of Manual Translation become less interesting because we have to put much effort in doing it. This activity is very laborious yet very useful for us. The effect will emerge gradually through the process. Based on my experience, doing Manual Translation makes my vocabulary mastery increase and very easy to spoken my thought easily because I have those vocabularies. The important factor of that things is our passion in Reading, whether it is article, books, literature and so on. CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION The notion about Google Translate Versus Manual Translate is a new insight and not many people talk about that.

As a student in English Department, we have to be a student who has a good quality especially in using Languages in Education Field, since we are going to be a Teacher, English Teacher. It isn’t wrong to use Google Translate and the similar tools. But we have to limit it and try to doing Manual translation more than an instant way, because the effort will never waste. May be, in the future, there will emerge so many insight in how to make a Manual Translation become more fun for student, Foreign Student. So they will be willing to spend their time and effort in doing Manual Translation.

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