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Introduction to prophet muhammad

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The choice of the topic was prompted because of the numerous impacts and transformation the leadership of prophet Muhammad had made to humanity and the world in general. So many scholars and historians such as Michael hart calyle in his book the hundred and mahatma ghandi even though they were not Muslims they made so many assertions that the world had never witnessed a leader who has achieved so much in all spheres of leadership ; socially, economically and religiously like such as man (Muhammad SAW). An Arab man who does not know how to read or write, but was able to transform the whole of Arabian Peninsula in less than three decades.

He was able to change the mind of Arabian people who happens to be so barbaric during the jahiliya period killing one another. They fought so many battles due to ethnicity, ignorance and land disputes which usually last for decades. As he came in, he was able to unite them, change their focus so as to love one another as it was reported in one of his tradition that: “ none of you is a complete believer unless he loves for his brother what he loves for himself”.

In the glorious Qur’an, Allah the most high says: “ O mankind, I have created you from a single male and female and made you in to nations and tribes; so that you man know one another. None of you is greater than the other except he who fears Allah the most”. Hence all are equal before Allah. From the aforementioned, I can categorically say that prophet Muhammad SAW is a role model to leaders of all kind; politically, economically, psychologically and religiously. Therefore all leaders in the world should learn and embrace the method of his leadership, this is because he conquered the whole of Arabian Peninsula without fierce battle except where they fought against him then he fights back in defense of his territorial sovereignty.

I also choose the topic because he was able to liberate women from the bondage of becoming extinct. The world over, there is no religion that has given women the liberation, respect and recognition than the religion of Islam with its leader Prophet Muhammad (SAW) as it was enshrined in the holy book of Allah.

But before the advent of this great leader, a female child born to a family is considered to ne a cause as such, they were either killed or buried alive. This was mentioned in the glorious Qur’an where Allah says; “ whenever one of them is giving a glad tiding of a female child, his fact would become darkened in sorrow in high state of grief. He will separate from his people the bad tidings he was given should he bury it in the earth”. But he was able to bring liberation to the female folks, not only to the female folk but to humanity in general as stated in the glorious Qur’an “ we do not send you expect as a mercy to the world”.

Introduction: Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him & his progeny) is the Prophet of Islam and the last prophet that God sent to mankind. He is considered the “ Seal of the Prophets,” which means the bringer of the final revelations from God, and God will not send another prophet after him.

Brief life history of Prophet Muhammad. He was born in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, then called Hijaz, in 560 A. D. Shortly after, he became an orphan, and was raised by his uncle, Abu Talib. He had no formal education and there is no documentation that he was taught to read or write before he declared his prophet hood. The Arabs of that region were very backward, illiterate, immoral, and cruel. They were polytheists and idol worshippers. As a young man, Muhammad kept aloof from others and did not participate in pagan rituals and popular cultural activities. He frequently went to a cave known as Hira in order to meditate and seek nearness to God. At the age of forty, he received the first revelations from God, through Angel Gabriel. From that point on, he declared that there was only one God and that he was the Prophet of God.

The pagan establishment vehemently opposed him. They offered him authority, honor, gold and silver, and any earthly pleasures that he desired, in order to stop preaching about one God and preaching against idol worship. Prophet Muhammad outright refused these offers, stating that if they put the sun in his right hand and moon in his left hand, he would not renounce his mission to preach about the one God. His followers were tortured and some of them were brutally killed. He and his followers were banished from his home city, isolated, and faced hardship and hunger. He finally emigrated to Medina, where he was welcomed, and there he established himself.

Muhammad as a youth. He refused to associate with people of his age in vain and immoral cultural practices of his time. As a young adult, he was dignified, soft-spoken, and considerate. He was so honest and trustworthy that he gained the respect of his peers and the society, and earned the title of “ al-Amin,” meaning “ the trusted.”

Muhammad the Prophet: He was focused, consistent, extremely patient, kind, and forgiving. He withstood the hatred and insults of his people and never retaliated in kind.

During his banishment, he and his followers were socially and economically boycotted, and they underwent hunger, deprivation, and isolation. He kept the morale of his followers high and bore the hardships equally with the rest of his people, with full trust in the Divine Will.

Muhammad the Statesman. He conducted the affairs of state with a great amount of diplomacy and wisdom. He sent emissaries to Roman and Persian monarchs and other governments near and far. He received ambassadors and delegations from other countries. They went away impressed and, in many instances, embraced his teachings.

Muhammad the Commander in Chief. He fought wars, planned strategies, and actively participated in armed conflicts to defend himself and the new faith. A single defeat in any of the wars would have resulted in his death and an end to his mission.

Muhammad as Judge: He judged impartially, with due consideration to all the parties involved. His decisions were based upon justice, compassion, and strictly upon divine laws. He did not permit nepotism, favoritism, or partisanship to interfere with justice.

The rich, the poor, the lowly, the mighty, the privileged, and the downtrodden felt safe and secure under his administration.

Muhammad the Lawgiver. Under his administration, criminal and civil laws were established based upon the Qur’anic injunctions. These laws were comprehensive, addressing all situations. Many of the laws were based upon established Abrahamic and Mosaic religious laws.

Muhammad as a teacher. His knowledge and understanding of the Qur’an was unmatched. He taught morals, ethics, mannerism, and civility to the uncultured Arabs of his time. He had remarkable tact and never belittled even the most ignorant and uncultured inquirer.

Muhammad the family man. He was kind and respectful to his wives and promoted respect and kindness to parents. Arabs at that time used to bury alive their newborn girls out of shame. He forbade that practice, and taught that the education and raising of daughters was a virtuous act. He dealt with his wives with kindness and compassion, and was frequently seen participating in house chores.

Muhammad the ruler of Arabia. From an orphan, to pauper, then persecuted, then a refugee, then head of state, and finally the ruler of nearly all Arabia, he did not change his demeanor. He continued to be humble and unpretentious. He was readily accessible.

Bedouin Arabs used to call upon him, and even sometimes rebuked him based on their poor understanding of Islam. He showed the utmost amount of patience in dealing with them.

Muhammad’s mission accomplished. In his lifetime, the religion of Islam as taught by him was completed and perfected. Islam became the religion of most of Arabia. This accomplishment is unparalleled in the history of mankind. No prophet before him could claim success like that of Muhammad. During their lifetime, their own people essentially rejected the two great prophets, Moses and Jesus.

Great discoveries. Based on the teachings of Muhammad, the Arab Muslims made great strides in various fields of human knowledge. At the time when Europe was in the dark ages, universities and schools in Baghdad, Iraq were busy in research and discoveries in nearly all field of human knowledge, including astronomy, physics, mathematics, and medicine. Students from all over the world came to study there.

During his prophet hood, as the Quran was revealed to him, he recited the verses to his companions, usually explaining their meanings to teach them. It must be noted that this is one of the prophet’s responsibilities. Elements of the prophet’s explanations are;

  • Clarifying verses whose intents are not understood
  • Indication of names, places, times etc. which have not been mentioned in the verse
  • Restriction of meanings which have been given as absolute
  • Reconciling expressions which seem contradictory

Although scholars including ibn Taymiyyah claim that the prophet has commented on the whole of the Quran, others including Ghazali cite the limited amount of narratives, thus indicating that he has commented only on a portion of the Quran. These interpretations have not been collected independently in a book; rather, they have been recorded in hadith books, under the topic of tafsir, along with other narrations of the prophet.

The leadership qualities I find most admirable were his humility, his recognition of talent, and his ability to think counterintuitive.

When the prophet received his first revelation, he trembled with fear. He was fully aware of the awesome responsibility.

So fearful was he that he could confide only to his wife Khatijah. In an era where females generally and wives in

Particular were mere chattels of men, that he took her in confidence was remarkable. It reflected his inner strength and

Confidence in judgment, regardless of the prevailing norms. He trusted and respected his wife, a rare trait in that time and place.

It also reflected his deep humility. Lesser mortals who thought they had been chosen by God would undoubtedly

Proclaim that fact loudly for the world to hear, a la George Bush, Jr., or Pat Robertson.

True to his humility, he preached initially only to his close family and friends. He was fully aware that his message would

Literally turn his society upside down, transforming it for the better. He risked dividing his community in the process.

Allah in His Wisdom did not choose His Last Messenger randomly. Long before Allah had chosen him, Muhammad had already demonstrated his noble and sterling character. He was Al Amin, the Trustworthy, to his community in preaching, the Prophet was careful in ensuring that his followers memorized only the divine revelations, not his commentaries. He forbade what would be considered today as a personality cult. Had he not done so, every Muslim home would be adorned with his portrait, cities named after him, and statues erected in his honor. For added measure, Muslims would be sporting amulets bearing his name or likeness for protection and good luck charms.

During his prophet hood, as the Quran was revealed to him, he recited the verses to his companions, usually explaining their meanings to teach them. It must be noted that this is one of the prophet’s responsibilities. Elements of the prophet’s explanations are;

  • Clarifying verses whose intents are not understood
  • Indication of names, places, times etc. which have not been mentioned in the verse
  • Restriction of meanings which have been given as absolute
  • Reconciling expressions which seem contradictory

Although scholars including ibn Taymiyyah claim that the prophet has commented on the whole of the Quran, others including Ghazali cite the limited amount of narratives, thus indicating that he has commented only on a portion of the Quran. These interpretations have not been collected independently in a book, rather, they have been recorded in hadith books, under the topic of tafsir, along with other narrations of the prophet

There are severalfactors that caused Muhammad SAW to be a successful leader. They are:

1. Belief(faith) is strong, recognition (justification) with the heart, sounding, by the tongue, demonstrated through action and body.

2. Fair, able to cause a sense of justice equally to all people without exception. Justice of the Prophet is never sacrificed in the name of any such reflection of Allah’s teachings, “ Do not make your hate to a nation that will make you do not apply fair” (QS 5: 8). Prophet aware that justice is the correct window in order to realize a prosperous society.

3. Affection, he actually led with the touch of love, empathy and sympathetic that there is no counterpart that is presented to all the people.

Prophet Muhammad’s unique communication and leadership style led to the spread of Islam, not only within Arabia but also outside to the north, south, east, west and southwest of Arabia.   As a leader during wartime or as a leader during peacetime, Prophet Muhammad proved to master skillful techniques with which he accomplished his goals in delivering the message of Islam.

Prophet Muhammad communicative values of liberty, justice, modesty, and politeness were matched with practical deeds. The people saw this action of his and identified with.  Prophet Muhammad’ skills as manifested in his speeches demonstrated to the eyes of all humankind that he was indeed a great leader worthy of note.

His skillful use of rhetoric demonstrated his commitment for meaningful competent communication for humankind in general. His speeches demonstrated that he sought to see all humankind from the lens of kindness, modesty, moderation, justice, liberty, gentility, generosity and love.

Regardless of religion and political affiliation, Prophet Muhammad use Islam as a channel to preach kindness. This study has shown through his manifold communicative talents that he tried to influence thoughts by advocating kindness in our dealings with one another. By indicating to his wife Aisha that she should love the poor, it was an indirect way to teach all humankind to share love and kindness regardless of a person’s economic background. This same implication in the speeches of the Prophet can be discerned in his notion of modesty.

             The world today is far from modest. Political factions and all sorts of social and economic discrimination have segmented the human race. People now think more in terms of class. Modesty is exclusive to ‘ members of the club’. If you do not belong you can neither be heard nor seen. Prophet Muhammad speeches on the need for modest behavior and his exemplary behavior seen throughout this study have a significant meaning to our lives. When he said that every religion must have some kind of meaningful character, he laid emphasis on the fact that Islam was a modest religion.   

             On the other hand, he was calling on all Islamic believers to question their conscience whether by following the belief system of Islam; they were practicing its basic tenets of modesty. He who is not has to examine his conscience and choose the rightful path and not be a hypocrite. This is how significant Mohammad’s message is to the world of today. This is what he intended to achieve in his message. Since modesty is akin to moderation, the Prophet’s communication themes also laid emphasis on it.            

His speech about abstaining from extremism in the practice of Islam has a greater significance to our world of today. His intended his message about religious extremism to be upheld through out the lifespan of humankind. He was so emphatic about this issue because he believed that by practicing extreme Islamic rituals or ideals, the person or persons doing so would be following something else than Islam and that kind of attitude could send a different signal to his enemies. And the only way to show to potential followers of Islam that by practicing extreme Islam, they were not true followers of Allah, he said: “ Those people who went to extremes (in practicing their religion) were destroyed.” (This therefore, shows in no ambiguous terms that Prophet Muhammad condones extreme religious practices.

The findings on the Prophet’s values of moderation revealed that he placed a lot of weight on mannerism. Humankind has to match words with deeds. Believers were not to say one thing and do the other. When told by some of his followers that they will abstain from women and devote their entire energy to prayer, he responded by stating that he was married. This was like an indirect way to inform the speaker that there was no room for pretense. By choosing to abstain you open yourself to irresistible temptation. Getting married would therefore serve as the means to shun sin and other forms of temptation. This is certainly the landmark of difference between Muhammad and other spiritual and secular leaders of his time and today. To begin with, some other spiritual leaders remained unmarried and by deciding to do so created a pattern for their followers to follow suit. But experience has shown that most of these followers could not faithfully follow their religion without falling into the temptation of bodily pleasures. This could have been unwelcome by Muhammad. He foresaw this kind of contradiction and so taught by examples. It was like doing justice to natures calling. The Prophet was in essence advocating justice between sexes.

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