1. Floro Quibuyen 2. Teodoro Agoncillo 1 st Nationalist view Reform movement did not cause the Revolution DICHOTOMY: REFORM REVOLUTION Renato Constantino Echoed Agoncillo Accepts: Essentialist characterization of Agoncillo DICHOTOMY RIZAL BONIFACIO 3. NOT based on historical FACTS FACTS: (REFORMIST) Province of Spain NOT for INDEPENDENCE Anti-Friar NOT anti-SPANIARD Not for Armed Revolution RIZAL: El Fili and Manifesto to the Filipino People Denounced the Revolution Antonio Luna: x Katipunan 4.
MIDDLE CLASS Illustrados Economic interest Cautious and conservative MASSES Revolutionary consciousness born of praxis INARTICULATE MASSES “ inchoate” revolutionary consciousness European Liberalism 5. REFORMIST Middle class Illustrados Rizal La Liga Filipina “ hatred of the masses” REVOLUTIONARIES Masses Bonifacio Katipunan 6. RIZAL Assimilationist Self-serving Counter-revolutionary BONIFACIO Fighting for the country’s liberty 7. What are the “ historical FACTS” How did the people of the 19 th century perceive events? 8.
Why, of all heroes, was Rizal the most venerated in the 19 th century nationalist movement? What was it in Rizal’s life and works that struck a chord in popular imagination? What was Rizal’s nationalist agenda? How was it received by the revolutionaries? Did the people of the 19 th century perceive Liga and the Katipunan as ideologically and strategically opposed political organizations ? Did the revolutionaries perceive Rizal as an assimilationist and therefore opposed revolution ? Did they, for that matter, perceive Reform and Revolution as opposed political agendas? . Ileto’s : “ history from below” Two opposite and irreconcilable meanings Modernist discourse Traditional discourse Reproduces the Agoncillo-Constantino binary opposites Answers the first 2 questions 10. MODERNIST Elite/official Liberal reformist Elite TRADITIONAL Folk/ vernacular Tagalog christ Masses “ realm of the familiar” 11. RIZAL Prim and proper Sensitive Anti-SPAIN DEL PILAR Ambitious Politically shrewd Anti-FRIAR 12. Other scholars: Cesar Majul John Schumacher Sesuho Ikehata Austin Coates Leon Guerrero 13. 861-1882 : Formative years Calamba, Binan Ateneo and the Jesuits Gomburza Martyrdom Imprisonment of Teodora Alonzo Literary ventures Encounter with the guardia civil 14. 1882-1887: European Sojourn EnlightenmenteducationMedical studiesPatriotismNoli me tangere 1887-1888: The turning point Calamba Hacienda case 15. 1888-1892 : Second Sojourn Radicalization of Rizal Historical, ethnological, and linguistic studies Los Indios bravos Break with the del Pilar and La Solaridad El Filibusterismo 16. 1892-1896: The Moment of Truth Rizal and the Revolution La Liga Filipina and the Katipunan Exile to Dapitan Arrest Martyrdom 17.
Strategy and tactics – Reform or Revolution Calamba Hacienda Case Rizal’s break with del Pilar’s La Solidaridad 18. Independence Peaceful struggle DREAM Assimilation MISTAKE 19. Letters to Blumentrit T he Filipinos had long wished for HISPANIZATION and they were wrong in aspiring for it. It is Spain and not the Philippines who ought to wish for the assimilation of the country. (Feb 21 1887) 20. A peaceful struggle shall always be a dream , for Spain will never learn the lesson of her South American colonies. Spain cannot learn what England and the United States have learned.
But , under the present circumstances , we do not want separation from Spain. All that we ask is great attention, better education, better government, one or two representatives, and grater security for persons and our properties. Spain could always win the appreciation of Filipinos if she were only reasonable. But, quos vult perdere Jupiter, prius dementat! (Jan 26, 1887) 21. A peaceful struggle shall always be a dream , for Spain will never learn the lesson of her South American colonies. Spain cannot learn what England and the United States have learned. But , under the present circumstances , we do not want separation from Spain .
All that we ask is great attention, better education, better government, one or two representatives, and grater security for persons and our properties. Spain could always win the appreciation of Filipinos is she were only reasonable. But, quos vult perdere Jupiter, prius dementat! (Jan 26, 1887) 22. Rizal’s pseudonym : Laong-la’an ( Ever Prepared ) Almost Fatalistic attitude Spain would never accede to the demand of reforms, and so, if the revolution was going to happen, it was going to happen ; one must, therefore , be prepared for any eventuality. (June 19, 1887) 23.
I can assure you that I have no desire to take part in conspiracies which seem to me premature and risky in the extreme. But if the government drives us to it, that is to say, when there remains to us no other hope than to seek our ruin in war, when the Filipinos shall prefer to die rather than to endure their miseries any longer , than I too shall advocate violent means . It is Spain who must choose between peace and ruin… I cannot believe that you, as a free man, as a citizen of Europe, would like to advise your good friend to endure all and to act like a cowardly man, without courage. Guerrero trans. 1963, 286) 24. Reform = Political TACTIC Distinguished from: Longer strategy of SEPARATISM NOT mutually exclusive (Reform vs Revolution) Rizal : did NOT have ILLUSION of the reform movement Appreciated: tactical value 25. Letter to del Pilar I am assiduously studying the events in our country. I believethat only intelligence can redeem us , in the material and in the spiritual. I still persist in this belief. Parliamentary representation will be a burden on the Philippines for a long time.
If our countrymen felt otherwise than they do, we should reject any offer of such representation but, the way we are, with our countrymen indifferent, representation is good. It is better to be tied by the ankles than elbow to elbow . What can we do! (Guerrero) 26. The propaganda for assimilation is necessary but separatist propaganda should be even more active for the practical thing is to seek adherents in shaking off the yoke since we should not obtain and even if we did we would work for independence , banding together, making ourselves into apostles to gain men andmoney.
For all this much study, a great deal of fact and prudence and no boasting of our strength will be required… 27. … I think you understand me well enough… I shall go, then, to Manila and in all my acts keep ever in mind my duty as a separatist … You already have then a follower around here who will work with constancy (Guerrero) 28. Agoncillo-Constantion Dichotomy Reform VS Revolution 19 th Century Reform = tactic Long-term: SEPARATISM Revolution 29. Develop national consciousness : Propaganda (REFORM) Attain nationhood Obtain the knowledge that was not available to the Philippines but come home and work among your people.
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