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Soci-cultural issues in education

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Task: Socio-Cultural Issues in Education The past favored the approval of the theory of individuals’ natural rights in the historical American society. This resulted into the adoption of the unadulterated individualism policy (Johnson, Musial, Hall et al 17). During this time, all individuals had rights and social duties were not recognized. Everyone was able and willing to protect his or her rights. Additionally, they practiced slavery during this time though the slaves were few. Slaves lived in every colony and almost everyone owned slaves. Both the slaves and their family members belonged to their masters. The current America leaders focus on the enlightenment principles of the human rights as stated in the constitutions. However, they apply the principles selectively (Johnson, Musial, Hall et al 23). The past communities in the country were loosely organized leading to disunity. During this time, transportation was only possible by rivers and not roads (Johnson, Musial, Hall et al 43). This form of transportation was difficult because the rivers were not navigable. Religion influenced people’s lives in the country. The dominant religion in the past was Protestant that favored the development of individualism. Personal responsibility and the salvation of the people’s souls were highly stressed. Individuals’ moral standards aroused the concerns of the theologian. The ethical teachers mainly focused on the individuals’ morality instead of the social morality unlike today (Johnson, Musial, Hall et al 80). Human rights during the past development of the West were the combination of various philosophical theories. Some of the Greek thinkers who developed theories about human rights are Plato, Stoicism, and Socrates. Plato developed existence theories, which incorporates the basic element of current human rights. His theories emphasize on enhancing people’s virtues to benefit the common goal. The philosopher’s theories were against violence towards other people. The theories spread to other parts including America and this made the human right be the central themes. Human rights evolved from the natural law that played a great part in the past American political theory. The US congress signed statement of autonomy in 1776 (Johnson, Musial, Hall et al 102). The major themes of the declaration were human and revolution rights. All American embraced the themes and it started to spread to other nations. Later in 1787, they documented the basic elements of human rights in the US constitution as the first amendment. The amendment was implemented in 1791. Its aim was to limit the influence of the state. This ultimately safeguards the privileges of all citizens (Johnson, Musial, Hall et al 181). Most people accepted the human rights philosophy in the country with enthusiasm compared to Europe. People supported Aristotle’s theory, which states that the creator gave man the special rights and people should respects the rights (Johnson, Musial, Hall et al 223). The individuals’ private rights influenced the courts since the American community focused on individualism. Furthermore, the implementation of the constitution led to the abolition of slavery. However, other parts still practiced it. Most of slaves were in the tobacco-growing area like Virginia. After the banning slave trade, slave smuggling was common in these parts (Johnson, Musial, Hall et al 224). Pursuit of happiness Jefferson was influence by the philosophy of Epicurus. Epicurus’ theory focuses on the elimination of pain and increasing happiness. According to the theory, happiness can be achieved through peace and the human freedom. Most people believe that people in the past were happier than today. This is because in the traditional America, people cared about each other more. For instance, in the traditional families children took care of their elderly parents (Johnson, Musial, Hall et al 226). Currently, they usually take elderly to the aged homes because people are too hectic to address the needs of parents. People did not know what happiness was and how to pursue it during and after the American Revolution. The philosophers also thought that abolition of slavery was a pursuit for happiness. Jefferson considered slavery as a going against the natural law since it denied some citizens their freedom (Johnson, Musial, Hall et al 240). Thomas Jefferson and other leaders thought that protecting people’s rights and the reinstatement of political liberty would lead to happiness. They saw right to the happiness as everyone’s rights, which could lead to freedom. Currently, Americans are free and happy and their independence relies on economic laissez-fair and political autonomy. The founders of the United States separated the states and church to create an absolute atmosphere for religious liberty (Johnson, Musial, Hall et al 256). Jefferson and other Republicans collaborated for the first time in making people understand that for effective implementation of religious liberty, there should be a separation between religion and government (Johnson, Musial, Hall et al 261). Jefferson was the first person who gave hope to the nonconformist by making the first amendment to act as the division amid church and state. He faced oppositions from people who hated the idea of religious liberty. People respect religious rights in America just like the other rights. Jefferson wrote a letter to Danbury indicating that he was a philosophical president who supported freedom in America (Johnson, Musial, Hall et al 292). In 1802, Thomas Jefferson declared a division between the church and states. This separation led to the diversity of faiths in America. Additionally, it led to the increase in individuals’ devotion. Citizens of the US are still the most religious people in the world currently. However, the government does not play a great part in promoting or funding the religious institutions. The maintenance of the separation between the church and the state has sustained the vitality of religion in America (Johnson, Musial, Hall et al 301). Works Cited Johnson, A., Musial, L., Hall, E. et al. Foundations of American Education: Perspectives on Education in a Changing World. Upper Saddle River, N. J: Merrill, 2010. Print.

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