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Sociology study guide exam

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1) defining deviance is difficult and subjective (sociologists don’t agree).

2) for our purpose deviance must

A) violate significant norms.

B) Result in negative evaluation for reaction.

1) Conflict theory. -stressthat the power elite uses the legal system to control worker and to stabilize the social order, all with the goal of keeping itself in power. The poor pose a threat, for if they rebel as a group they can dislodge members of the power elite from their place of privilege. To prevent this, the power elite makes certain that heavy penalties come down on those who’s crimes could upset the social order.

2) Functional theory- Argue that crime is a natural part of society. Stress that the sociall classes differ in opportunities for income andeducation, so they differ in opportunities for crime. As a result, street crime is higher among the lower social classes and white-collar crime is higher among the higher social classes. The growing crime rates of women illustrate how changinggender roleshave given women more access to what sociologist call “ illegitimate opportunities. ”

3) Social foundations- Labeling Theory-questions who applies what label to whom, why they do this, and what happens as a result of this labeling.

The significance of reputations, how they help set us on paths that propel us into deviance or that diver us away from it. Anomie Theory-concept developed by Emile Durkheim to describe an absence of clear societal norms and values. In the concept of anomie individuals lack a sense of social regulation: people feel unguided in the choices they have to make.

Differential Association-a theory developed by Edwin Sutherland proposing that through interaction with others, individuals learn the values, attitudes, techniques, and motives for criminal behavior (how people learn to become criminals).

Crime 1). Elements – 2). Categories- Mental illness 1) Dr. Thomas Szasz – mental illness are neither mental nor illness. They are simply problem behaviors.

2) Rosenhahn study-A study done proving “ it is clear that we cannot distinguish the sane from the insane in psychiatric labels might be a solution and recommended education to make psychiatric workers more aware of the socialpsychologyof their facilities. In this study 8 “ mentally healthy” people took hallucinations attempting to gain admission to 12 different psychiatric hospitals in five different states. All were admitted and diagnosed with psychiatric disorders.

After admission they acted normal again and told staff they felt fine, all were forced to admit to having t a mental illness and agree to take antipsychotic drugs as a condition of their release. All but one was diagnosed with schizophrenia. The second part of his study involved an offended hospital challenging Rosenhan to send pseudopatients to its facility, which its staff would then detect. Rosenhan agreed and in the following weeks out of 193 new patients the staff identified 41 as potential pseudopatients, with 19 of these receiving suspicion from at least 1 psychiatrist and 1 other staff member.

In fact Rosenhan had sent no one to the hospital Substance Abuse

1) Types of drug use-

2) Social policy-

3) Conflict view-Individuals and groups in society struggle to maximize their share of the limited resources that exist and are desired by humans. Given that there are limited resources, the struggle inevitably leads to conflict and competition. These struggles can lead to changes in institutions and societies as different groups come into power. Social control- The techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society.

1) Formal- Expressed though law as statues, rules and regulations against deviant behavior. Usually carried out by those in a position of power and/or authority such as a police officer, judge, or principal of a school.

2) Informal- Denominates customs, traditions, norms and other social values inherited by the individual. Informal sanctions may include ridicule, sarcasm, criticism and disapproval. In extreme cases sanctions may include socialdiscriminationand exclusion. Prejudice- An attitude or prejudging, usually in a negative way.


1) Individual- Treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on the race, class, group, or category to which that person or thing belongs rather than on the individual.

2) Institutional- The unfair, indirect treatment of an individual embedding in the operating procedures, policies, laws, or objectives of large organizations. Can occur without conscious cause, is often subtle and nearly invisible, reinforced by the interrelationship of social institutions.

Example- jobs not hiring people under the height of 5’4” which eliminates most Mexicans and women, or in other countries women aren’t allowed to participate in some religious activities or government. Post-Industrial Society- Society based on information, services, and hightechnology, rather than on raw materials and manufacturing.

Economic Systems

1) Capitalism-An economic system characterized by the private ownership of the means of production, the pursuit of profit, and market competition.

2) Socialism-An economic system characterized b the public ownership of the means of production, central planning, and the distribution o goods without a profit motive. Genocide- The attempt to destroy a group of people because of their presumed race or ethnicity (ethnic cleansing). Minority-People who are singled out for unequal treatment and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination. Plessey vs Ferguson- Decision by the US Supreme Court that confirmed the principle of “ separate but equal” and minority segregation.

Brown vs Board of Education-This case took on segregation within school systems, or the separation of white and black students within public schools. Up until this case, many stats had laws establishing separate schools for white students and another for blacks. This landmark case made those laws unconstitutional. This case set the foundations for thecivil rightsmovement. Exploitation Theory- occurs when one social group is able to take for itself what is produced by another group.

The concept is central to the idea of social oppression, especially from a Marxist perspective, and can also include noneconomic forms, such as he sexual exploitation of women by men under patriarchy. Amalgamation-(melting pot) all groups should combine their traditions calues and characteristics with one another to create a new group. Assimilation-The loss of a subaltern group’s native language andcultureunder pressure to assimilate to those of a dominant cultural group.

Contact Hypothesis-This is the principle that brings people together who are in conflict (or where one isbullyingthe other), the conflict will subside as they get to understand one another.


1) Authority-Power that people consider legitimate, as rightly exercised over them; also called legitimate power.

2) Traditional-Those who exercise authority do so because they continue a tradition and support the preservation and continuation of existing values and social ties. For example Queen is Head of States in Britain, a position she inherited on the basis of traditional rules of succession for the monarchy.

3) Rational Legal- Those in authority give orders (and expect to be obeyed) because the office they fill gives them the right to give orders. Anyone who fills the same position has the right to issue orders. Orders are only to be obeyed if they are relevant to the situation in which they are given. Example, ateacherorders “ complete your homework by Thursday” the order is expected to be obeyed, but if the same teacher asked the student to go get her milk from the store, they wouldn’t be expected to obey.

4) Charismatic-People obey because of the personal qualities of the person doing the telling. Well-known charismatic figures include Jesus Christ, Hitler, and Chairman Mao. However, charismatic figures may arise in any social grouping and such people assume positions of authority over others on the basis of personal qualities ofleadershipb other group members.

5) Coercive-People forced to do as they are told under threat of punishment. For example a prison or a school classroom.

6) Renumerative-Power rest on the material means provided bymoneyor some other reward which the members desire and the organization controls. Government-Political authority; a group of people who have the power to make and enforce laws for a country or area.

  1. 1) Monarchy-A state or nation in which the supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in monarch. The head of state is often for life or until abdication.
  2. 2) Democracy-Have the consent of the people. The officials xercising power have legitimate authority because they have been elected, and the mechanism for changing the government is through peaceful and regular elections.
  3. 3) Oligarchy-Political power effectively rest with a small, elitre segment of society. Greek for “ few rule”
  4. 4) Totalitarianism-The state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior.
  5. 5) Dictatorship-A government headed by a dictator or more generally any authoritarian or totalitarian government. Power Elite-C. Wright Mill’s term for the top people in U. S. corporations, military, and political who make the nation’s major decisions. Types of Work-
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