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The art and architecture of ancient rome history essay

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Roman art can be divided into two major sections: the art of the Roman Republic since its very beginning and the art of the Roman Empire. While in the period before the second Century BC cannot really be spoken of a Roman art. It began with the winning of hegemony over Italy and the Mediterranean by the Romans Road to the independent development. By adapting particular Greek and Hellenistic style influences that merged with own creations, a specifically Roman style began to emerge in the fields of architecture, sculpture, painting and mosaic art, the first primarily served the purpose to manifest the political and military power of Rome. The individual performance of the artist thus entered against the representational character of the artwork in the background, so that despite significant achievements, which spawned the Roman art in various fields. ArchitectureThe numerous remains of Roman buildings, and not least by the records of the Roman architect Vitruvius (De Architectura) from the first Century BC can get a clear picture of Roman architecture drawn on their political-military training (enlargement of the Roman Empire) and representative reasons were decisive. Therefore, great importance was attached to the next sacred building engineering services such as the construction of roads, bridges and water pipes, urban planning and public buildings such as meetinghouses, spas and theaters. While older cities such as Rome, which were established before the time of an actual city planning consisted of a network of labyrinthine streets and overgrown uncontrollably in width, possessed the planned scale city of the late Roman Republic, a roughly rectangular in plan, with the Roman military camp served as a model: to two main axes – cardo (north-south) and decumanus (east-west direction) – are clustered a network of small streets that divided the city into square quarters. The city was surrounded by a city wall, like the Roman legionary fort Castra Regina. The center of each city at the junction of two main roads formed the forum a great place based on the Greek Agora, which was lined with rows of shop, temples and public buildings, such as the Curia and the Basilica. The first basilicas were in the beginning of the second Century BC built in the Roman Forum. A well-preserved basilica dating from around 120 BC was discovered at Pompeii. The first Roman theater buildings emerged in the late Republic. They owned a semicircular orchestra and terraced rising rows of seats (cavea), which were organized by corridors and intermediate rows into wedge-shaped segments and intermediate rows. While the Greek theaters were embedded in natural slopes, it was the development of the arch and vault technology possible monumental theater that were supported by a framework of pillars and arches to build in town centers. Important examples can be found in Sabratha. Amphitheater, which were used originally were made ​​of wood, later also built of stone and for gladiator games and animal hunts, an oval space enclosed ellipse. One of the oldest amphitheaters were found in Pompeii and the largest is the Colosseum in Rome, which summed up about 50 000 spectators. Public and private thermal baths (thermae, from Greek thermos: warm, so warm baths) were among the most elaborate architectural complexes of ancient Rome. They usually consisted of a suite of dressing rooms and bathrooms with hot, warm and cold pools (caldarium, tepidarium, frigidarium) and other bodies responsible for the personal care, the athletic training and grooming. Excellent examples of such a system are the Baths of Stabiae on the Bay of Naples. The Baths of Caracalla (c. 217 AD) in Rome, which are among the greatest facilities of its kind, united libraries, reading rooms and large public rooms under one roof and were richly decorated with mosaics, paintings and stuccos. Another building is the Roman villa (villa rustica), often an entire farm complex with extensive lands and economic development. One of the best preserved Roman villas is the Villa of Hadrian in Tivoli, which also represents a good example of the refinement of its style in the imperial period in its long-range system. Emperor Augustus owned a residence on the Palatine Hill in Rome. Under the reign of the Emperor Domitian was near this residence a big palace by the architect Rabirius built. Domitian Domus augustana, which also served some successors as Emperor Seat, decreed in addition to the private chambers on large reception halls, public dining rooms, fountains and a park. Arch of TriumphAmong the most important buildings with propaganda and purely decorative part of the honor is the Arc de Triomphe (Arc triumphalis), which was first built later by the emperors themselves everywhere in the kingdom of generals, by the Senate and during the Principate to celebrations of a military victory. It was designed as a simple gatehouse with one or three passages and often crowned with cenotaphs in the form of larger groups of sculptures that represented the honorees with its team. Only in the Roman Empire, they experienced a more elaborate design, and were provided with decorative relief panels that represented the occasion of the ceremony sometimes in allegorical form. One of the best preserved Roman triumphal arches, whose ornamentations are usually pillars of the Corinthian or the Composite order was used is the Arch of Titus in the Roman Forum and the Arch of Constantine in near the Colosseum. Even outside Rome decorated triumphal arches were erected, such as the arc with 14 boards in honor of Trajan in Benevento or the Tiberius arch in orange, with the representations of war trophies and bound prisoners, battle scenes between Romans and Gauls captured and is with weapons and armors decorated. The first style dominated in the period 120-80 BC (House of Sallust in Pompeii). It is also known as incrustation, as the walls were decorated with painted or stuccoes blocks, the marble-clad walls of the houses of wealthy citizens imitated. The painters of the second so-called Stiles also known as an architectural style that is characterized by the imitation of Hellenistic stage backdrops and the illusionistic breaking of the wall by means of perspective. Wall paintings of this period are a large extent also found in Pompeii. The third style avoids the illusion of the second painting style and brings the wall again as a two-dimensional surface for the application that is designed with a fine, linear ornamentation on a monochrome background. The finest examples of this style include the murals in the Villa of Agrippa Postumus in Boscotrecase. The fourth style is the most complex style, which existed before the eruption of Vesuvius. It reaches back more on architectural motifs which returned with whom it refined with smooth facades decorated stages.

Forum Traiani

Trajan’s Forum (Latin: Forum Traiani) in Rome is the last, largest and most magnificent of the so-called Imperial Forums. It is also the forum in Rome, which is still the best preserved today. In order of Emperor Trajan 107 AD people began with the construction and design of the Trajan’s Forum, led by the famous architect Apollodorus of Damascus. The entire system in 143 AD, was inaugurated finally in a central location in Rome where was no place for such a magnificent forum as Trajan presented. He therefore chose the still largely undeveloped section between the Forum of Caesar Augustus for the forum. The location was on a hill between the Capitol and the Quirinal. Since Trajan doesn’t want to build his forum on a hill, he let the soil of about 35 m high Ostabhangs the Quirinal wear. Based on the attached site plan we can understand the structure of Trajan’s Forum: 1 An imposing triumphal arch, erected in AD 116, was the entrance to the forum. 2 A way from the Colosseum Coming runs straight through the arch on the central equestrian statue of Trajan. 3 Excavated on the western slope of Quirinal hill and originated in semi-circular arrangement, the so-called Trajan. Here, shops, magazines were housed in numerous buildings several stores high. Many of the resulting malls Apollodorus of Damascus was even roofed over so that the visitors were protected from the rain. With the numerous incurred thereby courtyards together can be called the whole thing almost as an ancient forerunner of today’s shopping malls. 4 Very impressive to the visitors of the Forum must have acted the five-aisled Basilica Ulpia. It is believed that the offices of Justice and Education were housed here. 5 Then to the Basilica Ulpia a two separate buildings library was grown. A part of the building housed the Latin books, the other Greek ones. 6 Between the two parts of the library, there was Trajan’s Column, erected in praise of the victory in the Dacian wars – until today the best preserved remnant of Trajan at all. 7 As a conclusion of the Forum Trajan it was adapted to more accurate excavations in 2004. The current status suggests, however, that there was a residential development at this location. Forum BoariumThe Forum Boarium was a flat area on the banks of the Tiber River, which once served as a transition to the shepherds. Therefore, this place was a place for the cattle trade, hence the name of the later Forum stirring. The Forum Boarium is the oldest in Rome. There were due to the favorable geographical conditions not only the first bridges over the Tiber, but the original main port of the city (Portus Tiberinus). Brisk business activities were the result that eased only slightly, as in the third Century BC, the port was moved to Ostia Antica and the Portus Tiberinus plummeted to the city harbor. Yet it remained until the second century AD. In Trajan it was shut down and covered over with warehouses the forum Boarium is the temple of Hercules Victor, who was long attributed to Vesta and was most likely dedicated to. The temples are so well preserved because they were rebuilt in the middle Ages by churches. Moreover, on the northern edge of the Forum there is the strongly weathered Arch of Janus (Janus quadrifrons), formerly a covered street intersection and distributors meeting, and the so-called Argenta arch (arcus argentariorum). At the southeast end of the Forum was a late antique building which probably had its seat of the Prefect of the Cura annonae, the food supply of the city. Monuments remained of this building can still be seen today in the church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin. In its porch is an ancient marble relief, which is popularly, called ” Mouth of Truth”. The Romans believed in the middle Ages, that a liar’s hand was bitten off when he put in the mouth of the relief. Trevi FountainThe Trevi Fountain is composed of a palace facade, which is set in front of a triumphal arch. Before that there were marine figures frolicking on a rocky landscape and pours the water into a large, shallow pool. The material used is from Tivoli travertine and marble from Carrara. The Trevi Fountain is the third fountain in Rome, receiving endpoint as a renovated ancient aqueduct with triumphal arch motives. Salvi developed the models, the Well of Moses (completed in 1587) and the Fontana Paola (completed in 1613), and executes the architecture principle in the form of more monumental. Salvi’s topic was the forces of nature that threaten the work of men. On the right side of the facade by the bursting forth rocks it seems to break already. The dramatic effect is enhanced by the flowing water produced by ocean waves, which can be heard already in the side streets. Salvi has long experimented with stone surface with which he can achieve this effect, despite the relatively small amount of water. On the rocks there are all sorts of mythical creatures of the sea, like sea horses and tritons, arranged against the storming of the viewer. Above them is the center of stately sea god Oceanus already in the central niche of the arch. The Arch is a reinterpretation of the Arch of Constantine. In the niches left and right of Oceanus are characters that were created by Filippo della Valle, which symbolize health and virility. In each case there is a relief. Right shows a virgin (Latin virgo, hence the name Aqua Virgo) soldiers Agrippa the source in the Sabine mountains. Agrippa left orders the construction of the aqueduct. On the architrave there are four figures representing allegories from right to left, the lush meadows, and the gifts of autumn, the fertility of the fields and the abundance of fruit. The inscriptions paying homage to the popes is involved in the construction. The fountain is crowned with the arms of Clement XII.

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