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Important law enforcement facts assignment

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| | | There are approximately 870, 000 sworn law enforcement officers now serving in the United States. | |  | | About 11. 3 percent of them are female. | |  | | Crime fighting has taken its toll. Since the first recorded police death in 1792, there have been more that 16, 500 law enforcement| | officers killed in the line of duty. |  | | A total of 1, 658 law enforcement officers died in the line of duty during the last 10 years, an average of one death every 53 | | hours or 166 per year. | |  | | There were 230 police deaths in 2001 nationwide, which represents a 49 percent increase from the 154 officers who died in 2000. |  | | In 2002 there were 147 police deaths nationwide – a significant decrease from 2001. | |  | | There were 145 law enforcement officers killed in 2003. | |  | | The deadliest day in law enforcement history was September 11, 2001, when 70 law enforcement officers were killed in the terrorist| | attacks at the World Trade Center in New York City. |  | | Averages: | |  | | Every 53 hours an officer is killed… | |  | | 166 deaths per year… | |  | | 58, 066 assaults per year resulting in 16, 494 injuries per year. |  | |  | | | |  | | | | | | | | A Career in Law Enforcement | | People depend on police officers and detectives to protect their lives and property.

Law enforcement officers, some of whom are | | State or Federal special agents or inspectors, perform these duties in a variety of ways, depending on the size and type of their | | organization. In most jurisdictions, they are expected to exercise authority when necessary, whether on or off duty. | | Uniformed police officers who work in municipal police departments of various sizes, small communities, and rural areas have | | general law enforcement duties including maintaining regular patrols and responding to calls for service. They may direct traffic | | at the scene of a fire, investigate a burglary, or give first aid to an accident victim. In large police departments, officers | | usually are assigned to a specific type of duty.

Many urban police agencies are becoming more involved in community policing—a | | practice in which an officer builds relationships with the citizens of local neighborhoods and mobilizes the public to help fight | | crime. | | Police agencies are usually organized into geographic districts, with uniformed officers assigned to patrol a specific area, such | | as part of the business district or outlying residential neighborhoods. Officers may work alone, but in large agencies they often | | patrol with a partner. While on patrol, officers attempt to become thoroughly familiar with their patrol area and remain alert for| | anything unusual. Suspicious circumstances and hazards to public safety are investigated or noted, and officers are dispatched to | | individual calls for assistance within their district.

During their shift, they may identify, pursue, and arrest suspected | | criminals, resolve problems within the community, and enforce traffic laws. | | Public college and university police forces, public school district police, and agencies serving transportation systems and | | facilities are examples of special police agencies. These agencies have special geographic jurisdictions or enforcement | | responsibilities in the United States. Most sworn personnel in special agencies are uniformed officers, a smaller number are | | investigators. | | Some police officers specialize in such diverse fields as chemical and microscopic analysis, training and firearms instruction, or| | handwriting and fingerprint identification.

Others work with special units such as horseback, bicycle, motorcycle or harbor | | patrol, canine corps, or special weapons and tactics (SWAT) or emergency response teams. A few local and special law enforcement | | officers primarily perform jail-related duties or work in courts. Regardless of job duties or location, police officers and | | detectives at all levels must write reports and maintain meticulous records that will be needed if they testify in court. | | Sheriffs and deputy sheriffs enforce the law on the county level. Sheriffs are usually elected to their posts and perform duties | | similar to those of a local or county police chief.

Sheriffs’ departments tend to be relatively small, most having fewer than 25 | | sworn officers. A deputy sheriff in a large agency will have law enforcement duties similar to those of officers in urban police | | departments. Police and sheriffs’ deputies who provide security in city and county courts are sometimes called bailiffs. (For | | information on other officers who work in jails and prisons, see correctional officers elsewhere in the Handbook. ) | | State police officers (sometimes called State troopers or highway patrol officers) arrest criminals Statewide and patrol highways | | to enforce motor vehicle laws and regulations.

Uniformed officers are best known for issuing traffic citations to motorists who | | violate the law. At the scene of accidents, they may direct traffic, give first aid, and call for emergency equipment. They also | | write reports used to determine the cause of the accident. State police officers are frequently called upon to render assistance | | to other law enforcement agencies, especially those in rural areas or small towns. | | State law enforcement agencies operate in every State except Hawaii. Most full-time sworn personnel are uniformed officers who | | regularly patrol and respond to calls for service. Others are investigators, perform court-related duties, or work in | | administrative or other assignments. | Detectives are plainclothes investigators who gather facts and collect evidence for criminal cases. Some are assigned to | | interagency task forces to combat specific types of crime. They conduct interviews, examine records, observe the activities of | | suspects, and participate in raids or arrests. Detectives and State and Federal agents and inspectors usually specialize in one of| | a wide variety of violations such as homicide or fraud. They are assigned cases on a rotating basis and work on them until an | | arrest and conviction occurs or the case is dropped. | | The Federal Government maintains a high profile in many areas of law enforcement.

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agents are| | the Government’s principal investigators, responsible for investigating violations of more than 260 statutes and conducting | | sensitive national security investigations. Agents may conduct surveillance, monitor court-authorized wiretaps, examine business | | records, investigate white-collar crime, track the interstate movement of stolen property, collect evidence of espionage | | activities, or participate in sensitive undercover assignments. The FBI investigates organized crime, public corruption, financial| | crime, fraud against the government, bribery, copyright infringement, civil rights violations, bank robbery, extortion, | | kidnapping, air piracy, terrorism, espionage, interstate criminal activity, drug trafficking, and other violations of Federal | | statutes. | | U. S.

Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) agents enforce laws and regulations relating to illegal drugs. Not only is the DEA the | | lead agency for domestic enforcement of Federal drug laws, it also has sole responsibility for coordinating and pursuing U. S. drug| | investigations abroad. Agents may conduct complex criminal investigations, carry out surveillance of criminals, and infiltrate | | illicit drug organizations using undercover techniques. | | U. S. marshals and deputy marshals protect the Federal courts and ensure the effective operation of the judicial system. They | | provide protection for the Federal judiciary, transport Federal prisoners, protect Federal witnesses, and manage assets seized | | from criminal enterprises.

They enjoy the widest jurisdiction of any Federal law enforcement agency and are involved to some | | degree in nearly all Federal law enforcement efforts. In addition, U. S. marshals pursue and arrest Federal fugitives. | | U. S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) agents and inspectors facilitate the entry of legal visitors and immigrants to | | the U. S. and detain and deport those arriving illegally. They consist of border patrol agents, immigration inspectors, criminal | | investigators and immigration agents, and detention and deportation officers. U. S. Border Patrol agents protect more than 8, 000 | | miles of international land and water boundaries. Their missions are to detect and prevent the smuggling and unlawful entry of | | undocumented foreign nationals into the U. S. apprehend those persons found in violation of the immigration laws, and interdict | | contraband, such as narcotics. Immigration inspectors interview and examine people seeking entrance to the U. S. and its | | territories. They inspect passports to determine whether people are legally eligible to enter the United States. Immigration | | inspectors also prepare reports, maintain records, and process applications and petitions for immigration or temporary residence | | in the United States. | | Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives agents regulate and investigate violations of Federal firearms and explosives| | laws, as well as Federal alcohol and tobacco tax regulations.

Customs agents investigate violations of narcotics smuggling, money | | laundering, child pornography, customs fraud, and enforcement of the Arms Export Control Act. Domestic and foreign investigations | | involve the development and use of informants, physical and electronic surveillance, and examination of records from | | importers/exporters, banks, couriers, and manufacturers. They conduct interviews, serve on joint task forces with other agencies, | | and get and execute search warrants. | | Customs inspectors inspect cargo, baggage, and articles worn or carried by people and carriers including vessels, vehicles, trains| | and aircraft entering or leaving the U. S. to enforce laws governing imports and exports.

These inspectors examine, count, weigh, | | gauge, measure, and sample commercial and noncommercial cargoes entering and leaving the United States. Customs inspectors seize | | prohibited or smuggled articles, intercept contraband, and apprehend, search, detain, and arrest violators of U. S. laws. | | U. S. Secret Service special agents protect the President, Vice President, and their immediate families; Presidential candidates; | | former Presidents; and foreign dignitaries visiting the United States. Secret Service agents also investigate counterfeiting, | | forgery of Government checks or bonds, and fraudulent use of credit cards. | | The U. S.

Department of State Bureau of Diplomatic Security special agents are engaged in the battle against terrorism. Overseas, | | they advise ambassadors on all security matters and manage a complex range of security programs designed to protect personnel, | | facilities, and information. In the U. S. , they investigate passport and visa fraud, conduct personnel security investigations, | | issue security clearances, and protect the Secretary of State and a number of foreign dignitaries. They also train foreign | | civilian police and administer a counter-terrorism reward program. | | Other Federal agencies employ police and special agents with sworn arrest powers and the authority to carry firearms.

These | | agencies include the Postal Service, the Bureau of Indian Affairs Office of Law Enforcement, the Forest Service, the National Park| | Service, and the Federal Air Marshals. | | Police work can be very dangerous and stressful. In addition to the obvious dangers of confrontations with criminals, officers | | need to be constantly alert and ready to deal appropriately with a number of other threatening situations. Many law enforcement | | officers witness death and suffering resulting from accidents and criminal behavior. A career in law enforcement may take a toll | | on officers’ private lives. | | Uniformed officers, detectives, agents, and inspectors are usually scheduled to work 40-hour weeks, but paid overtime is common. | Shift work is necessary because protection must be provided around the clock. Junior officers frequently work weekends, holidays, | | and nights. Police officers and detectives are required to work at any time their services are needed and may work long hours | | during investigations. In most jurisdictions, whether on or off duty, officers are expected to be armed and to exercise their | | arrest authority whenever necessary. | | The jobs of some Federal agents such as U. S. Secret Service and DEA special agents require extensive travel, often on very short | | notice. They may relocate a number of times over the course of their careers.

Some special agents in agencies such as the U. S. | | Border Patrol work outdoors in rugged terrain for long periods and in all kinds of weather. | | Police and detectives held about 840, 000 jobs in 2002. About 81 percent were employed by local governments. State police agencies | | employed about 11 percent and various Federal agencies employed about 6 percent. A small proportion worked for educational | | services, rail transportation, and contract investigation and security services. | | According to the U. S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, police and detectives employed by local governments primarily worked in cities| | with more than 25, 000 inhabitants.

Some cities have very large police forces, while thousands of small communities employ fewer | | than 25 officers each. | | Civil service regulations govern the appointment of police and detectives in practically all States, large municipalities, and | | special police agencies, as well as in many smaller ones. Candidates must be U. S. citizens, usually at least 20 years of age, and | | must meet rigorous physical and personal qualifications. In the Federal Government, candidates must be at least 21 years of age | | but less than 37 years of age at the time of appointment. Physical examinations for entrance into law enforcement often include | | tests of vision, hearing, strength, and agility.

Eligibility for appointment usually depends on performance in competitive written| | examinations and previous education and experience. In larger departments, where the majority of law enforcement jobs are found, | | applicants usually must have at least a high school education. Federal and State agencies typically require a college degree. | | Candidates should enjoy working with people and meeting the public. | | Because personal characteristics such as honesty, sound judgment, integrity, and a sense of responsibility are especially | | important in law enforcement, candidates are interviewed by senior officers, and their character traits and backgrounds are | | investigated.

In some agencies, candidates are interviewed by a psychiatrist or a psychologist, or given a personality test. Most | | applicants are subjected to lie detector examinations or drug testing. Some agencies subject sworn personnel to random drug | | testing as a condition of continuing employment. | | Before their first assignments, officers usually go through a period of training. In State and large local departments, recruits | | get training in their agency’s police academy, often for 12 to 14 weeks. In small agencies, recruits often attend a regional or | | State academy. Training includes classroom instruction in constitutional law and civil rights, State laws and local ordinances, | | and accident investigation.

Recruits also receive training and supervised experience in patrol, traffic control, use of firearms, | | self-defense, first aid, and emergency response. Police departments in some large cities hire high school graduates who are still | | in their teens as police cadets or trainees. They do clerical work and attend classes, usually for 1 to 2 years, at which point | | they reach the minimum age requirement and may be appointed to the regular force. | | Police officers usually become eligible for promotion after a probationary period ranging from 6 months to 3 years. In a large | | department, promotion may enable an officer to become a detective or specialize in one type of police work, such as working with | | juveniles.

Promotions to corporal, sergeant, lieutenant, and captain usually are made according to a candidate’s position on a | | promotion list, as determined by scores on a written examination and on-the-job performance. | | To be considered for appointment as an FBI agent, an applicant either must be a graduate of an accredited law school or a college | | graduate with a major in accounting, fluency in a foreign language, or 3 years of related full-time work experience. All new | | agents undergo 16 weeks of training at the FBI academy on the U. S. Marine Corps base in Quantico, Virginia. | | Applicants for special agent jobs with the U. S. Secret Service and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives must | | have a bachelor’s degree or a minimum of 3 years’ related work experience.

Prospective special agents undergo 10 weeks of initial | | criminal investigation training at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center in Glynco, Georgia, and another 17 weeks of | | specialized training with their particular agencies. | | Applicants for special agent jobs with the U. S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) must have a college degree and either 1 year| | of experience conducting criminal investigations, 1 year of graduate school, or have achieved at least a 2. 95 grade point average | | while in college. DEA special agents undergo 14 weeks of specialized training at the FBI Academy in Quantico, Virginia. | | U. S. Border Patrol agents must be U. S. itizens, younger than 37 years of age at the time of appointment, possess a valid driver’s| | license, and pass a three-part examination on reasoning and language skills. A bachelor’s degree or previous work experience that | | demonstrates the ability to handle stressful situations, make decisions, and take charge is required for a position as a Border | | Patrol agent. Applicants may qualify through a combination of education and work experience. | | Postal inspectors must have a bachelor’s degree and 1 year of related work experience. It is desirable that they have one of | | several professional certifications, such as that of certified public accountant.

They also must pass a background suitability | | investigation, meet certain health requirements, undergo a drug screening test, possess a valid State driver’s license, and be a | | U. S. citizen between 21 and 36 years of age when hired. | | Law enforcement agencies are encouraging applicants to take postsecondary school training in law enforcement-related subjects. | | Many entry-level applicants for police jobs have completed some formal postsecondary education and a significant number are | | college graduates. Many junior colleges, colleges, and universities offer programs in law enforcement or administration of | | justice. Other courses helpful in preparing for a career in law enforcement include accounting, finance, electrical engineering, | | computer science, and foreign languages.

Physical education and sports are helpful in developing the competitiveness, stamina, and| | agility needed for many law enforcement positions. Knowledge of a foreign language is an asset in many Federal agencies and urban | | departments. | | Continuing training helps police officers, detectives, and special agents improve their job performance. Through police department| | academies, regional centers for public safety employees established by the States, and Federal agency training centers, | | instructors provide annual training in self-defense tactics, firearms, use-of-force policies, sensitivity and communications | | skills, crowd-control techniques, relevant legal developments, and advances in law enforcement equipment.

Many agencies pay all or| | part of the tuition for officers to work toward degrees in criminal justice, police science, administration of justice, or public | | administration, and pay higher salaries to those who earn such a degree. | | The opportunity for public service through law enforcement work is attractive to many because the job is challenging and involves | | much personal responsibility. Furthermore, law enforcement officers in many agencies may retire with a pension after 20 or 25 | | years of service, allowing them to pursue a second career while still in their 40s. Because of relatively attractive salaries and | | benefits, the number of qualified candidates exceeds the number of job openings in Federal law enforcement agencies and in most | | State police departments—resulting in increased hiring standards and selectivity by employers.

Competition should remain keen for | | higher paying jobs with State and Federal agencies and police departments in more affluent areas. Opportunities will be better in | | local and special police departments, especially in departments that offer relatively low salaries, or in urban communities where | | the crime rate is relatively high. Applicants with college training in police science, military police experience, or both should | | have the best opportunities. | | Employment of police and detectives is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through 2012. A more | | security-conscious society and concern about drug-related crimes should contribute to the increasing demand for police services. | | The level of overnment spending determines the level of employment for police and detectives. The number of job opportunities, | | therefore, can vary from year to year and from place to place. Layoffs, on the other hand, are rare because retirements enable | | most staffing cuts to be handled through attrition. Trained law enforcement officers who lose their jobs because of budget cuts | | usually have little difficulty finding jobs with other agencies. The need to replace workers who retire, transfer to other | | occupations, or stop working for other reasons will be the source of many job openings. | | Police and sheriff’s patrol officers had median annual earnings of $42, 270 in 2002.

The middle 50 percent earned between $32, 300 | | and $53, 500. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $25, 270, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $65, 330. Median annual | | earnings were $47, 090 in State government, $42, 020 in local government, and $41, 600 in Federal Government. | | In 2002, median annual earnings of police and detective supervisors were $61, 010. The middle 50 percent earned between $47, 210 and| |$74, 610. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $36, 340, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $90, 070. Median annual | | earnings were $78, 230 in Federal Government, $64, 410 in State government, and $59, 830 in local government. | In 2002, median annual earnings of detectives and criminal investigators were $51, 410. The middle 50 percent earned between | |$39, 010 and $65, 980. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $31, 010, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $80, 380. Median | | annual earnings were $66, 500 in Federal Government, $47, 700 in local government, and $46, 600 in State government. | | Federal law provides special salary rates to Federal employees who serve in law enforcement. Additionally, Federal special agents | | and inspectors receive law enforcement availability pay (LEAP)—equal to 25 percent of the agent’s grade and step—awarded because | | of the large amount of overtime that these agents are expected to work.

For example, in 2003 FBI agents enter Federal service as | | GS-10 employees on the pay scale at a base salary of $39, 115, yet earned about $48, 890 a year with availability pay. They can | | advance to the GS-13 grade level in field nonsupervisory assignments at a base salary of $61, 251, which is worth $76, 560 with | | availability pay. FBI supervisory, management, and executive positions in grades GS-14 and GS-15 pay a base salary of about | |$72, 381 or $85, 140 a year, respectively, and equaled $90, 480 or $106, 430 per year including availability pay. Salaries were | | slightly higher in selected areas where the prevailing local pay level was higher. Because Federal agents may be eligible for a | | special law enforcement benefits package, applicants should ask their recruiter for more information. | According to the International City-County Management Association’s annual Police and Fire Personnel, Salaries, and Expenditures | | Survey, average salaries for sworn full-time positions in 2002 were as follows: | |  | | Minimum | | annual base | | salary | | Maximum | | annual base | | salary | | | | | | Police chief | |$68, 337 | |$87, 037 | | | | | | Deputy chief | | 59, 790 | | 75, 266 | | | | | | Police captain | | 56, 499 | | 70, 177 | | | | | Police lieutenant | | 52, 446 | | 63, 059 | | | | | | Police sergeant | | 46, 805 | | 55, 661 | | | | | | Police corporal | | 39, 899 | | 49, 299 | | | | | | Total earnings for local, State, and special police and detectives frequently exceed the stated salary because of payments for | | overtime, which can be significant. In addition to the common benefits—paid vacation, sick leave, and medical and life | | insurance—most police and sheriffs’ departments provide officers with special allowances for uniforms. Because police officers | | usually are covered by liberal pension plans, many retire at half-pay after 20 or 25 years of service. | | Police and detectives maintain law and order, collect evidence and information, and conduct investigations and surveillance. | Significant Points of Security and Gaming Surveillance | | | | | | | | Opportunities for most jobs should be favorable, but competition is expected for higher paying positions at facilities requiring | | longer periods of training and a high level of security, such as nuclear power plants and weapons installations. | | Because of limited formal training requirements and flexible hours, this occupation attracts many individuals seeking a second or | | part-time job. | | Some positions, such as those of armored car guards, are hazardous. | | Guards, who are also called security officers, patrol and inspect property to protect against fire, theft, vandalism, terrorism, | | and illegal activity.

These workers protect their employer’s investment, enforce laws on the property, and deter criminal activity| | or other problems. They use radio and telephone communications to call for assistance from police, fire, or emergency medical | | services as the situation dictates. Security guards write comprehensive reports outlining their observations and activities during| | their assigned shift. They may also interview witnesses or victims, prepare case reports, and testify in court. | | Although all security guards perform many of the same duties, specific duties vary based on whether the guard works in a “ static” | | security position or on a mobile patrol.

Guards assigned to static security positions usually serve the client at one location for| | a specific length of time. These guards must become closely acquainted with the property and people associated with it and often | | monitor alarms and closed-circuit TV cameras. In contrast, guards assigned to mobile patrol duty drive or walk from location to | | location and conduct security checks within an assigned geographical zone. They may detain or arrest criminal violators, answer | | service calls concerning criminal activity or problems, and issue traffic violation warnings. | | Specific job responsibilities also vary with the size, type, and location of the employer.

In department stores, guards protect | | people, records, merchandise, money, and equipment. They often work with undercover store detectives to prevent theft by customers| | or store employees and help in the apprehension of shoplifting suspects prior to arrival by police. Some shopping centers and | | theaters have officers mounted on horses or bicycles who patrol their parking lots to deter car theft and robberies. In office | | buildings, banks, and hospitals, guards maintain order and protect the institutions’ property, staff, and customers. At air, sea, | | and rail terminals and other transportation facilities, guards protect people, freight, property, and equipment.

They may screen | | passengers and visitors for weapons and explosives using metal detectors and high-tech equipment, ensure nothing is stolen while | | being loaded or unloaded, and watch for fires and criminals. | | Guards who work in public buildings such as museums or art galleries protect paintings and exhibits by inspecting people and | | packages entering and leaving the building. In factories, laboratories, government buildings, data processing centers, and | | military bases, security officers protect information, products, computer codes, and defense secrets and check the credentials of | | people and vehicles entering and leaving the premises. Guards working at universities, parks, and sports stadiums perform crowd | | control, supervise parking and seating, and direct traffic.

Security guards stationed at the entrance to bars and places of adult | | entertainment, such as nightclubs, prevent access by minors, collect cover charges at the door, maintain order among customers, | | and protect property and patrons. | | Armored car guards protect money and valuables during transit. In addition, they protect individuals responsible for making | | commercial bank deposits from theft or bodily injury. When the armored car arrives at the door of a business, an armed guard | | enters, signs for the money, and returns to the truck with the valuables in hand. Carrying money between the truck and the | | business can be extremely hazardous for guards. Because of this risk, armored car guards usually wear bullet-proof vests. | All security officers must show good judgment and common sense, follow directions and directives from supervisors, accurately | | testify in court, and follow company policy and guidelines. Guards should have a professional appearance and attitude and be able | | to interact with the public. They also must be able to take charge and direct others in emergencies or other dangerous incidents. | | In a large organization, the security manager is often in charge of a trained guard force divided into shifts; whereas in a small | | organization, a single worker may be responsible for all security. | | Gaming surveillance officers and gaming investigators act as security agents for casino managers and patrons. They observe casino | | operations for irregular activities, such as cheating or theft, by either employees or patrons.

To do this, surveillance officers | | and investigators often monitor activities from a catwalk over one-way mirrors located above the casino floor. Many casinos use | | audio and video equipment, allowing surveillance officers and investigators to observe these same areas via monitors. Recordings | | are kept as a record and are sometimes used as evidence against alleged criminals in police investigations. | | Most security guards and gaming surveillance officers spend considerable time on their feet, either assigned to a specific post or| | patrolling buildings and grounds. Guards may be stationed at a guard desk inside a building to monitor electronic security and | | surveillance devices or to check the credentials of persons entering or leaving the premises.

They also may be stationed at a | | guardhouse outside the entrance to a gated facility or community and use a portable radio or cellular telephone that allows them | | to be in constant contact with a central station. The work usually is routine, but guards must be constantly alert for threats to | | themselves and the property they are protecting. Guards who work during the day may have a great deal of contact with other | | employees and members of the public. Gaming surveillance often takes place behind a bank of monitors controlling several cameras | | in a casino, which can cause eyestrain. | | Guards usually work at least 8-hour shifts for 40 hours per week and often are on call in case an emergency arises.

Some employers| | have three shifts, and guards rotate to equally divide daytime, weekend, and holiday work. Guards usually eat on the job instead | | of taking a regular break away from the site. More than 1 in 7 guards worked part time, and many individuals held a second job as | | a guard to supplement their primary earnings. | | Security guards and gaming surveillance officers held more than 1. 0 million jobs in 2002. More than half of jobs for security | | guards were in investigation and security services, including guard and armored car services. These organizations provide security| | services on a contract basis, assigning their guards to buildings and other sites as needed.

Most other security officers were | | employed directly by educational services, hospitals, food services and drinking places, traveler accommodation (hotels), | | department stores, manufacturing firms, lessors of real estate (residential and nonresidential buildings), and governments. Guard | | jobs are found throughout the country, most commonly in metropolitan areas. Gaming surveillance officers worked primarily in | | gambling industries; traveler accommodation, which includes casino hotels; and local government. Gaming surveillance officers were| | employed only in those States and Indian reservations where gambling has been legalized. | A significant number of law enforcement officers work as security guards when off-duty to supplement their incomes. Often working | | in uniform and with the official cars assigned to them, they add a high profile security presence to the establishment with which | | they have contracted. At construction sites and apartment complexes, for example, their presence often prevents trouble before it | | starts. | | Most States require that guards be licensed. To be licensed as a guard, individuals must usually be at least 18 years old, pass a | | background check, and complete classroom training in such subjects as property rights, emergency procedures, and detention of | | suspected criminals.

Drug testing often is required, and may be random and ongoing. | | Many employers of unarmed guards do not have any specific educational requirements. For armed guards, employers usually prefer | | individuals who are high school graduates or hold an equivalent certification. Many jobs require a driver’s license. For positions| | as armed guards, employers often seek people who have had responsible experience in other occupations. | | Guards who carry weapons must be licensed by the appropriate government authority, and some receive further certification as | | special police officers, which allows them to make limited types of arrests while on duty.

Armed guard positions have more | | stringent background checks and entry requirements than those of unarmed guards because of greater insurance liability risks. | | Compared to unarmed security guards, armed guards and special police typically enjoy higher earnings and benefits, greater job | | security, more advancement potential, and usually are given more training and responsibility. | | Rigorous hiring and screening programs consisting of background, criminal record, and fingerprint checks are becoming the norm in | | the occupation. Applicants are expected to have good character references, no serious police record, and good health.

They should | | be mentally alert, emotionally stable, and physically fit in order to cope with emergencies. Guards who have frequent contact with| | the public should communicate well. | | The amount of training guards receive varies. Training requirements are higher for armed guards because their employers are | | legally responsible for any use of force. Armed guards receive formal training in areas such as weapons retention and laws | | covering the use of force. | | Many employers give newly hired guards instruction before they start the job and also provide on-the-job training. An increasing | | number of States are making ongoing training a legal requirement for retention of certification.

Guards may receive training in | | protection, public relations, report writing, crisis deterrence, and first aid, as well as specialized training relevant to their | | particular assignment. | | Guards employed at establishments placing a heavy emphasis on security usually receive extensive formal training. For example, | | guards at nuclear power plants undergo several months of training before being placed on duty under close supervision. They are | | taught to use firearms, administer first aid, operate alarm systems and electronic security equipment, and spot and deal with | | security problems. Guards authorized to carry firearms may be periodically tested in their use. | | Although guards in small companies may receive periodic salary increases, advancement opportunities are limited.

Most large | | organizations use a military type of ranking that offers the possibility of advancement in position and salary. Some guards may | | advance to supervisor or security manager positions. Guards with management skills may open their own contract security guard | | agencies. | | In addition to the keen observation skills required to perform their jobs, gaming surveillance officers and gaming investigators | | must have excellent verbal and writing abilities to document violations or suspicious behavior. They also need to be physically | | fit and have quick reflexes because they sometimes must detain individuals until local law enforcement officials arrive. | Surveillance officers and investigators usually do not need a bachelor’s degree, but some training beyond high school is required;| | previous security experience is a plus. Several educational institutes offer certification programs. Training classes usually are | | conducted in a casino-like atmosphere using surveillance camera equipment. | | Opportunities for security guards and gaming surveillance officers should be favorable. Numerous job openings will stem from | | employment growth attributable to the desire for increased security, and from the need to replace those who leave this large | | occupation each year. In addition to full-time job opportunities, the limited training requirements and flexible hours attract | | many persons seeking part-time or second jobs.

However, competition is expected for higher paying positions that require longer | | periods of training; these positions usually are found at facilities that require a high level of security, such as nuclear power | | plants or weapons installations. | | Employment of security guards and gaming surveillance officers is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations | | through 2012 as concern about crime, vandalism, and terrorism continue to increase the need for security. Demand for guards also | | will grow as private security firms increasingly perform duties—such as monitoring crowds at airports and providing security in | | courts—which were formerly handled by government police officers and marshals.

Because enlisting the services of a security guard | | firm is easier and less costly than assuming direct responsibility for hiring, training, and managing a security guard force, job | | growth is expected to be concentrated among contract security guard agencies. Casinos will continue to hire more surveillance | | officers as more States legalize gambling and as the number of casinos increases in States where gambling is already legal. | | Additionally, casino security forces will employ more technically trained personnel as technology becomes increasingly important | | in thwarting casino cheating and theft. | | Median annual earnings of security guards were $19, 140 in 2002. The middle 50 percent earned between $15, 910 and $23, 920. The | | lowest 10 percent earned less than $13, 740, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $31, 540.

Median annual earnings in the | | industries employing the largest numbers of security guards in 2002 were as follows: | | Elementary and secondary schools | |$24, 470 | | | | General medical and surgical hospitals | | 24, 050 | | | | Local government | | 22, 120 | | | | Traveler accommodation | | 21, 390 | | | | Investigation and security services | | 17, 910 | | | | Gaming surveillance officers and gaming investigators had median annual earnings of $23, 110 in 2002. The middle 50 percent earned | | between $19, 620 and $28, 420. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $15, 930, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $35, 170. | | Guards protect property, maintain security, and enforce regulations and standards of conduct in the establishments at which they | | work. | Significant Points for a Private Detective or Investgator Career | | | | Work hours often are irregular, and the work can be dangerous. | | About a third were self-employed. | | Applicants typically have related experience in areas such as law enforcement, insurance, the military, or government | | investigative or intelligence jobs. | | Keen competition is expected because of the large number of qualified people who are attracted to this occupation; opportunities | | will be best for entry-level jobs with detective agencies or as store detectives on a part-time basis. | | Private detectives and investigators use many means to determine the facts in a variety of matters. To carry out investigations, | | they may use various types of surveillance or searches.

To verify facts, such as an individual’s place of employment or income, | | they may make phone calls or visit a subject’s workplace. In other cases, especially those involving missing persons and | | background checks, investigators often interview people to gather as much information as possible about an individual. In all | | cases, private detectives and investigators assist attorneys, businesses, and the public with a variety of legal, financial, and | | personal problems. | | Private detectives and investigators offer many services, including executive, corporate, and celebrity protection; pre-employment| | verification; and individual background profiles.

They also provide assistance in civil liability and personal injury cases, | | insurance claims and fraud, child custody and protection cases, and premarital screening. Increasingly, they are hired to | | investigate individuals to prove or disprove infidelity. | | Most detectives and investigators are trained to perform physical surveillance, often for long periods, in a car or van. They may | | observe a site, such as the home of a subject, from an inconspicuous location. The surveillance continues using still and video | | cameras, binoculars, and a cell phone, until the desired evidence is obtained. They also may perform computer database searches, | | or work with someone who does.

Computers allow detectives and investigators to quickly obtain massive amounts of information on | | individuals’ prior arrests, convictions, and civil legal judgments; telephone numbers; motor vehicle registrations; association | | and club memberships; and other matters. | | The duties of private detectives and investigators depend on the needs of their client. In cases for employers involving workers’ | | fraudulent compensation claims, for example, investigators may carry out long-term covert observation of subjects. If an | | investigator observes a subject performing an activity that contradicts injuries stated in a workers’ compensation claim, the | | investigator would take video or still photographs to document the activity and report it to the client. | | Private detectives and investigators often specialize.

Those who focus on intellectual property theft, for example, investigate | | and document acts of piracy, help clients stop the illegal activity, and provide intelligence for prosecution and civil action. | | Other investigators specialize in developing financial profiles and asset searches. Their reports reflect information gathered | | through interviews, investigation and surveillance, and research, including review of public documents. | | Legal investigators specialize in cases involving the courts and are normally employed by law firms or lawyers. They frequently | | assist in preparing criminal defenses, locating witnesses, serving legal documents, interviewing police and prospective witnesses,| | and gathering and reviewing evidence.

Legal investigators also may collect information on the parties to the litigation, take | | photographs, testify in court, and assemble evidence and reports for trials. | | Corporate investigators conduct internal and external investigations for corporations other than investigative firms. In internal | | investigations, they may investigate drug use in the workplace, ensure that expense accounts are not abused, or determine if | | employees are stealing merchandise or information. External investigations typically prevent criminal schemes originating outside | | the corporation, such as theft of company assets through fraudulent billing of products by suppliers. | Financial investigators may be hired to develop confidential financial profiles of individuals or companies who are prospective | | parties to large financial transactions. They often are Certified Public Accountants (CPAs) and work closely with investment | | bankers and accountants. They search for assets in order to recover damages awarded by a court in fraud or theft cases. | | Detectives who work for retail stores or hotels are responsible for loss control and asset protection. Store detectives, also | | known as loss prevention agents, safeguard the assets of retail stores by apprehending anyone attempting to steal merchandise or | | destroy store property. They prevent theft by shoplifters, vendor representatives, delivery personnel, and even store employees. | Store detectives also conduct periodic inspections of stock areas, dressing rooms, and restrooms, and sometimes assist in opening | | and closing the store. They may prepare loss prevention and security reports for management and testify in court against persons | | they apprehend. Hotel detectives protect guests of the establishment from theft of their belongings and preserve order in hotel | | restaurants and bars. They also may keep undesirable individuals, such as known thieves, off the premises. | | Private detectives and investigators often work irregular hours because of the need to conduct surveillance and contact people who| | are not available during normal working hours. Early morning, evening, weekend, and holiday work is common. | Many detectives and investigators spend time away from their offices conducting interviews or doing surveillance, but some work in| | their office most of the day conducting computer searches and making phone calls. Those who have their own agencies and employ | | other investigators may work primarily in an office and have normal business hours. | | When working on a case away from the office, the environment might range from plush boardrooms to seedy bars. Store and hotel | | detectives work in the businesses that they protect. Investigators generally work alone, but they sometimes work with others | | during surveillance or when following a subject in order to avoid detection by the subject. | | Some of the work involves confrontation, so the job can be stressful and dangerous.

Some situations call for the investigator to | | be armed, such as certain bodyguard assignments for corporate or celebrity clients. Detectives and investigators who carry | | handguns must be licensed by the appropriate authority. In most cases, however, a weapon is not necessary because the purpose of | | their work is gathering information and not law enforcement or criminal apprehension. Owners of investigative agencies have the | | added stress of having to deal with demanding and sometimes distraught clients. | | Private detectives and investigators held about 48, 000 jobs in 2002. About a third were self-employed, including many who held a | | secondary job as a self-employed private detective.

Almost a fifth jobs were found in investigation and security services, | | including private detective agencies, while another fifth were in department or other general merchandise stores. The rest worked | | mostly in State and local government, legal services firms, employment services, insurance carriers, and credit intermediation and| | related activities, including banks and other depository institutions. | | There are no formal education requirements for most private detective and investigator jobs, although many private detectives have| | college degrees. Private detectives and investigators typically have previous experience in other occupations. Some work initially| | for insurance or collections companies or in the private security industry.

Many investigators enter the field after serving in | | law enforcement, the military, government auditing and investigative positions, or Federal intelligence jobs. | | Former law enforcement officers, military investigators, and government agents often become private detectives or investigators as| | a second career because they are frequently able to retire after 20 years of service. Others enter from such diverse fields as | | finance, accounting, commercial credit, investigative reporting, insurance, and law. These individuals often can apply their prior| | work experience in a related investigative specialty. A few enter the occupation directly after graduation from college, generally| | with associate or bachelor’s degrees in criminal justice or police science. | The majority of States and the District of Colombia require private detectives and investigators to be licensed. Licensing | | requirements vary widely, but convicted felons cannot receive a license in most States and a growing number of States are enacting| | mandatory training programs for private detectives and investigators. Some States have few requirements, and 6 States—Alabama, | | Alaska, Colorado, Idaho, Mississippi, and South Dakota—have no statewide licensing requirements while others have stringent | | regulations. For example, the Bureau of Security and Investigative Services of the California Department of Consumer Affairs | | requires rivate investigators to be 18 years of age or older; have a combination of education in police science, criminal law, or| | justice, and experience equaling 3 years (6, 000 hours) of investigative experience; pass an evaluation by the Federal Department | | of Justice and a criminal history background check; and receive a qualifying score on a 2-hour written examination covering laws | | and regulations. There are additional requirements for a firearms permit. | | For private detective and investigator jobs, most employers look for individuals with ingenuity, persistence, and assertiveness. A| | candidate must not be afraid of confrontation, should communicate well, and should be able to think on his or her feet. Good | | interviewing and interrogation skills also are important and usually are acquired in earlier careers in law enforcement or other | | fields. Because the courts often are the ultimate judge of a properly conducted investigation, the investigator must be able to | | present the facts in a manner a jury will believe. | Training in subjects such as criminal justice is helpful to aspiring private detectives and investigators. Most corporate | | investigators must have a bachelor’s degree, preferably in a business-related field. Some corporate investigators have master’s | | degrees in business administration or law, while others are certified public accountants. Corporate investigators hired by large | | companies may receive formal training from their employers on business practices, management structure, and various | | finance-related topics. The screening process for potential employees typically includes a background check of criminal history. | Some investigators receive certification from a professional organization to demonstrate competency in a field. For example, the | | National Association of Legal Investigators (NALI) confers the Certified Legal Investigator designation to licensed investigators | | who devote a majority of their practice to negligence or criminal defense investigations. To receive the designation, applicants | | must satisfy experience, educational, and continuing training requirements, and must pass written and oral exams administered by | | the NALI. | | Most private detective agencies are small, with little room for advancement. Usually there are no defined ranks r steps, so | | advancement takes the form of increases in salary and assignment status. Many detectives and investigators work for detective | | agencies at the beginning of their careers and, after a few years, start their own firms. Corporate and legal investigators may | | rise to supervisor or manager of the security or investigations department. | | Keen competition is expected because private detective and investigator careers attract many qualified people, including | | relatively young retirees from law enforcement and military careers. Opportunities will be best for entry-level jobs with | | detective agencies or as store detectives on a part-time basis.

Those seeking store detective jobs have the best prospects with | | large chains and discount stores. | | Employment of private detectives and investigators is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through 2012. | | In addition to growth, replacement of those who retire or leave the occupation for other reasons should create many job openings. | | Increased demand for private detectives and investigators will result from fear of crime, increased litigation, and the need to | | protect confidential information and property of all kinds. More private investigators also will be needed to assist attorneys | | working on criminal defense and civil litigation.

Growing financial activity worldwide will increase the demand for investigators | | to control internal and external financial losses, and to monitor competitors and prevent industrial spying. | | Median annual earnings of salaried private detectives and investigators were $29, 300 in 2002. The middle 50 percent earned between| |$21, 980 and $41, 710. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $17, 290, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $57, 370. In 2002,| | median annual earnings were $29, 030 in investigation and security services, and $22, 250 in department stores. | | Earnings of private detectives and investigators vary greatly depending on their employer, specialty, and the geographic area in | | which they work.

According to a study by Abbott, Langer & Associates, security/loss prevention directors and vice presidents had a| | median income of $77, 500 per year in 2002; investigators, $39, 800; and store detectives, $25, 000. In addition to typical benefits,| | most corporate investigators received profit-sharing plans. | | Private detectives and investigators often collect information and protect the property and other assets of companies and | | individuals. | | Significant Points of a Career in Corrections | | The work can be stressful and hazardous. | | Most correctional officers work in institutions located in rural areas with smaller inmate populations than those in urban jails. | | Job opportunities are expected to be excellent. | Correctional officers are responsible for overseeing individuals who have been arrested and are awaiting trial or who have been | | convicted of a crime and sentenced to serve time in a jail, reformatory, or penitentiary. They maintain security and inmate | | accountability to prevent disturbances, assaults, or escapes. Officers have no law enforcement responsibilities outside the | | institution where they work. | | Police and sheriffs’ departments in county and municipal jails or precinct station houses employ many correctional officers, also | | known as detention officers. Most of the approximately 3, 300 jails in the United States are operated by county governments, with | | about three-quarters of all jails under the jurisdiction of an elected sheriff.

Individuals in the jail population change | | constantly as some are released, some are convicted and transferred to prison, and new offenders are arrested and enter the | | system. Correctional officers in the U. S. jail system admit and process more than 11 million people a year, with about half a | | million offenders in jail at any given time. When individuals are first arrested, the jail staff may not know their true identity | | or criminal record, and violent detainees may be placed in the general population. This is the most dangerous phase of the | | incarceration process for correctional officers. | | Most correctional officers are employed in large jails or State and Federal prisons, watching over the approximately one million | | offenders who are incarcerated at any given time.

In addition to jails and prisons, a relatively small number of correctional | | officers oversee individuals being held by the U. S. Immigration and Naturalization Service before they are released or deported, | | or they work for correctional institutions that are run by private for-profit organizations. While both jails and prisons can be | | dangerous places to work, prison populations are more stable than jail populations, and correctional officers in prisons know the | | security and custodial requirements of the prisoners with whom they are dealing. | | Regardless of the setting, correctional officers maintain order within the institution, and enforce rules and regulations.

To help| | ensure that inmates are orderly and obey rules, correctional officers monitor the activities and supervise the work assignments of| | inmates. Sometimes, it is necessary for officers to search inmates and their living quarters for contraband like weapons or drugs,| | settle disputes between inmates, and enforce discipline. Correctional officers periodically inspect the facilitie

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